A roof top SPV system could be with or without grid interaction. In grid interaction system, the DC power generated from SPV panels is converted to AC power using power conditioning unit and is fed to the grid either of 11 KV three phase line or of 220V single phase line depending on the system installed at institution/commercial establishment or residential complex. They generate power during the daytime which is utilized fully by powering the captive loads and feeding excess power to the grid as long as grid is available. In cases, where solar power is not sufficient due to cloud cover etc. the captive loads are served by drawing power from the grid. The grid- interactive rooftop SPV systems thus work on net metering basis wherein the beneficiary pays to the utility on net meter reading basis only. Ideally, grid interactive systems do not require battery backup as the grid acts as the back-up for feeding excess solar power and vice versa. However, to enhance the performance reliability of the overall systems, a minimum battery-back of one hr of load capacity is strongly recommended.
In grid interactive systems, it has , however to be ensured that in case the grid fails, the solar power has to be fully utilized or stopped immediately feeding to the grid (if any in excess) so as to safe-guard any grid person/technician from getting shock (electrocuted) while working on the grid for maintenance etc. This feature is termed as ‘Islanding Protection’
Non-grid interactive systems ideally require a full load capacity battery power back up system. However, with the introduction of advanced load management and power conditioning systems, and safety mechanisms, it is possible to segregate the day-time loads to be served directly by solar power without necessarily going through the battery back-up. As in the previous case of grid-interactive systems, minimum one hour of battery back-up is, however, strongly recommended for these systems also to enhance the performance reliability of the systems. The non-grid interactive system with minimum battery back are viable only at places where normal power is not available during daytime. In case the SPV power is to be used after sunshine hours, it would require full load capacity battery back up which will increase the cost of system.
A Solar Lantern is a portable lighting device consisting of a PV module, battery, lamp, and electronics. Battery, lamp, and electronics are placed in a suitable housing, made of metal or plastic or fiber glass. The Solar lantern is suitable for either indoor or outdoor lighting, covering a full range of 360 degrees.
PV module converts sunlight into electricity, charges the battery which powers the luminaire. Luminaire consists of White Light Emitting Diode (W-LED), a solid state device which emits light when an electric current passes through it.
A solar home lighting system (SHS) provides a comfortable level of illumination in one or more rooms of a house. The SHS consists of a PV module, control electronics, battery, and luminaire(s). There are several SHS models featuring one, two, or four luminaires based on White Light Emitting Diode (W-LED). The system could also be used to run a small DC fan or a 12-V DC television along with the W-LED Lamps.
PV module converts sunlight into electricity, which powers the luminaire(s). White Light Emitting Diode (W-LED) is a solid state device which emits light when electric current passes through it.
A standalone solar photovoltaic street lighting system (SLS) is an outdoor lighting unit used for illuminating a street or an open area. The Solar Street Lighting System consists of solar photovoltaic (SPV) module, a luminaire, storage battery, control electronics, inter-connecting wires/cables, module mounting pole including hardware and battery box. The luminaire is based on White Light Emitting Diode (W-LED), a solid state device which emits light when electric current passes through it. The luminaire is mounted on the pole at a suitable angle to maximize illumination on the ground. The PV module is placed at the top of the pole at an angle facing south so that it receives solar radiation throughout the day, without any shadow falling on it. A battery is placed in a box attached to the pole.
Electricity generated by the PV module charges the battery during the day time which powers the luminaire from dusk to dawn. The system lights at dusk and switches off at dawn automatically.
Solar drying is in practice since the time im-memorable for preservation of food and agriculture crops. This was done particularly by open sun drying under open the sky. This process has several disadvantages like spoilage of product due to adverse climatic condition like rain, wind, moist, and dust, loss of material due to birds and animals, deterioration of the material by decomposition, insects and fungus growth. Also the process is highly labor intensive, time consuming and requires large area. With cultural and industrial development artificial mechanical drying came in to practice. This process is highly energy intensive and expensive which ultimately increases product cost. Thus solar drying is the best alternative as a solution of all the drawbacks of natural drying and artificial mechanical drying.
Solar dryers used in agriculture for food and crop drying ,for industrial drying process, dryers can be proved to be most useful device from energy conservation point of view. It not only save energy but also save lot of time, occupying less area, improves quality of the product, make the process more efficient and protects environment also. Solar dryers circumvent some of the major disadvantages of classical drying. Solar drying can be used for the entire drying process or for supplementing artificial drying systems, thus reducing the total amount of fuel energy required.
Where it can be used?
Solar dryer is a very useful device for
1. Agriculture crop drying
2. Food processing industries for dehydration of fruits, potatoes, onions and other vegetables,
3. Dairy industries for production of milk powder, casein etc.
4. Seasoning of wood and timber.
5. Textile industries for drying of textile materials.
Solar still is a device to desalinate impure water like brackish or saline water. It a simple device to get potable/fresh distilled water from impure water, using solar energy as fuel, for its various applications in domestic, industrial and academic sectors.
A solar still consist of shallow triangular basin made up of Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP). Bottom of the basin is painted black so as to absorb solar heat effectively. Top of the basin is covered with transparent glass tilt fitted so that maximum solar radiation can be transmitted in to the still. Ages of the glass are sealed with the basin using tar tape so that the entire basin becomes air tight. Entire assembly is placed on a structure made of MS angle. Out let is connected with a storage container. Provision has been made to fill water in the still basin. A window is provided in the basin to clean the basin from inside. Water is charged in to the basin in a thin layer.
Solar Stills have got major advantages over other conventional Distillation / water purification /de-mineralisation systems as follows:
1. Produces pure water
2. No prime movers required
3. No conventional energy required
4. No skilled operator required
5. Local manufacturing/repairing
6. Low investment
7. Can purify highly saline water (even sea water)
Solar stills is an useful devise to get fresh/ distilled water which is required in :
|Industries||for industrial processes|
|Hospitals and Dispensaries||for sterilization|
|Garages and Automobile Workshop||for radiator and battery maintenance|
|Telephone Exchange||for battery maintenance|
|Laboratory Use||for analytic work|
|Marshy and costal area||To get fresh potable water|